Sunday, April 26, 2015

John Hough's obnoxious brickworks

 Old Buildings, Cross Lane, Salford
Old Buildings, Cross Lane, Salford.
“From the work usually known as ‘James's Views,’
published May 9, 1825.” Source:
Old Manchester, Plate 33
"On Saturday last, a case of considerable importance to the public of Manchester and Salford came on for hearing in the Salford County Court, before J.W. Harden, Esq , the judge of the court. and a respectable jury."
So began an article in the Manchester Courier and Lancashire General Advertiser on November 2, 1850.

The case of 'considerable importance' was brought by Mr Edward Foulkes, an attorney, who claimed that his garden at Grove House, Salford, was being damaged by smoke coming from the kilns of the brickworks nearby. The kilns, which had been erected over the previous six months, could have been built further away - 
"But the kilns, as they had been erected, smoked away within a very few yards of the boundary of the plaintiff's grounds. At the present cold season the smoke was a great nuisance, but in summer it was almost intolerable, and it was clear that the defendant sought to carry on his business in the most obnoxious manner."
Not only that, but the owner of the offensive brickworks had recently built a pig-sty right on the boundary of Mr Foulkes property. The obnoxious owner of the brickworks was John Hough.

Since the brickworks in question were located in Cross Lane in Salford, it seems highly likely that this was the same John Hough who was to become the great grandfather of Alice Hough

John Hough and his wife Elizabeth (nee Hurst) lived in Cross Lane most of their married lives, and according to the census of 1851, John was a brickmaker employing six men. All of his sons were brickmakers, including William, the father of Albert Hough, who was Alice's father and also a brickmaker.

The lawyer for the plaintiff, Mr Whigham, called on the expertise of horticulturalists and gardeners, who agreed that the smoke from John Hough's brickworks had reduced the productivity of Mr Foulkes vegetables and fruit trees. His rhubarb was blighted. He was seeking a sum of £50 in damages.

The court case was of public importance because, as John Hough's lawyer, Mr Wheeler put it:
"The jury were asked to determine whether, in this particular neighbourhood, a trade which had existed time out of mind, and one which was growingly prosperous to all concerned in it, should be absolutely put a stop to, or, if pursued at all, to be pursued with eternal law-suits. or threats of law-suits pending over those engaged in it."
The whole area, he argued, was one vast brick-field from which Manchester and Salford were supplied with bricks. Besides that, the nearby chemical and dye works could have been the cause of the damage to Mr Foulkes garden.

Salford museum and art gallery
Salford Museum and Art Gallery, opened in 1856 -
buildings like this required a lot of bricks.
It seems Mr Wheeler's arguments impressed both the judge and the jury. 
"His honour, in summing up, said the evidence of injury by the pig styes was very slight - that the plaintiff had withdrawn that part of the complaint relating to the water course, and that the remaining injury would be as to the damage alledged (sic) to be done by the smoke proceeding from the brick-kiln. He considered the occupancy of the land by the defendant suffciently proved. and the questions for the jury were: - had damage been done; secondly, had such damage, if done, been occasioned by the brick kilns of the defendant; and third, what was the amount of such damage. The judge then reviewed evidence of the plaintiff.—The jury retired, and, after a short absence, brought in a verdict FOR THE DEFENDANT".

The capitals are in the original article - was the editor shocked or pleased by the decision of the respectable jurors? Whatever his opinion, John Hough must have been very happy that he was now able to continue to run his brick kilns on Mr Foulkes boundary.

Albert Hough 1858-c 1905

Individual Summary26 April 2015

Name:Albert (aka Alfred) Hough
Father:William Hough (1831-1887)
Mother:Mary Lander (1833-1879)
Individual Facts
BirthJul 1858Salford, Lancashire, England16
Baptism6 Feb 1859 (about age 0)Salford, St Philip, Lancashire, England7
Residence1861 (about age 3)Relation to Head of House: Nephew; Salford, Lancashire, England3
Residence1871 (about age 13)Relation to Head of House: Son; Salford, Lancashire, England4
Residence1881 (about age 23)Relation to Head of House: Lodger  Occupation: dyer; Salford, Lancashire, England6 (This may not be the correct person)
Residence1901 (about age 43)Name: Albert Hough  Relation to Head of House: Father-in-law  Marital status: widower  Occupation: labourer; Pendleton, Lancashire, England1
Deathbef 1911 (before about age 53) Possibly 1905 in Salford. Does not appear on 1911 census
1. Anna (Hannah) Holt (1859-1899) married 18 August 1878 Stowell Memorial, Salford, Lancashire, England
ChildrenAlice Hough (1879-1909)
 Albert Hough (1882-    )
 Mary Hough (1886-1886)
 Harriet Ann Hough (1887-1894)
 James Thomas Hough (1890-    )
 John Hough (1893-    )
 Lily Elizabeth Hough (1895-    )
        1. 1901 England Census ( Operations Inc), Class: RG13; Piece: 3718; Folio: 121; Page: 31.
       2.. Manchester, England, Marriages and Banns, 1754-1930 ( Operations, Inc.).
        3. 1861 England Census ( Operations Inc), Class: RG 9; Piece: 2924; Folio: 32; Page: 11; GSU roll: 543050.
        4. 1871 England Census ( Operations Inc), Class: RG10; Piece: 4026; Folio: 81; Page: 30; GSU roll: 846325.
        5. FreeBMD, England & Wales, FreeBMD Birth Index, 1837-1915 ( Operations Inc).
        6. 1881 England Census ( Operations Inc), Class: RG11; Piece: 3973; Folio: 55; Page: 7; GSU roll: 1341949.
        7. Manchester, England, Births and Baptisms, 1813-1915 ( Operations, Inc.).

More about Albert Hough:

William Hough c 1831-1887

Individual Summary26 April 2015

Name:William Hough
Father:John Hough (1811-1883)
Mother:Elizabeth Hurst (1811-1889)
Individual Facts
Birthabt 1831Salford, Lancashire, England17
Residence1841 (about age 10)Manchester, Lancashire, England7
Residence1851 (about age 20)Relation to Head of House: Head  Occupation brickmaker; Manchester, Lancashire, England6
Residence1861 (about age 30)Relation to Head of House: Son-in-law.   Occupation:brickmaker; Salford, Lancashire, England3
Residence1871 (about age 40)Relation to Head of House: Head  Occupation: brickmaker; Salford, Lancashire, England1
Residence1881 (about age 50)Relation to Head of House: Head  Marital Status: Widow  Occupation:brickmaker Address: 52 Bridson St; Pendleton in Salford, Lancashire, England4
DeathJan 1887 (about age 56)Salford, Lancashire5
1. Mary Lander (1833-1879)  married 24 Dec 1849 in Manchester
ChildrenJohn Hough (1849-    )
William Henry Hough (1852-1853)
James Hough (1853-    )
Elizabeth Ann Hough (1856-1856)
Albert (Alfred) Hough (1858-1911)
William Hough (1861-    )
Elizabeth Hough (1866-    )
George Hough (1867-    )
Aleck(?) Hough (1868-    )
Mary Hough  (1871-    )
        1. 1871 England Census ( Operations Inc), Class: RG10; Piece: 4026; Folio: 81; Page: 29; GSU roll: 846325.
       2. Manchester, England, Marriages and Banns, 1754-1930 (Cathedral) ( Operations, Inc.).
        3. 1861 England Census ( Operations Inc), Class: RG 9; Piece: 2924; Folio: 32; Page: 11; GSU roll: 543050.
        4. 1881 England Census ( Operations Inc), Class: RG11; Piece: 3949; Folio: 137; Page: 29; GSU roll: 1341943.
        5. FreeBMD, England & Wales, FreeBMD Death Index, 1837-1915 ( Operations Inc).
        6. 1851 England Census ( Operations Inc), Class: HO107; Piece: 2224; Page: 26.
        7. 1841 England Census ( Operations, Inc), Class: HO107; Piece: 586; Book: 14; Civil Parish: Manchester; County: Lancashire; Enumeration District: 24; Folio: 11; Page: 14; Line: 10; GSU roll: 438739.

More about William Hough:

The Hough family brickmakers of Salford

John Hough c1811-1883

Individual Summary26 April 2015

Name:John Hough (parents unknown)
Individual Facts
Birthabt 1811Winsford, Cheshire, England16
Residence1841 (about age 30)Cross Lane. Occupation brickmaker; Manchester, Lancashire, England1
Residence1851 (about age 40)Relation to Head of House: Head  Occupation : brickmaker employing 6 men; Manchester, Lancashire, England4
Residence1852 (about age 41)Cross Lane, Manchester, Lancashire, England7
Residence1855 (about age 44)John Hough,  brickmaker,  Cross Lane; Blairs Cottage, Cross Lane, Salford8
Residence1861 (about age 50)Relation to Head of House: Head  Birthplace Chester  Occupation:brickmaker employing 4 men; Salford, Lancashire, England2
Residence1871 (about age 60)Relation to Head of House: Head  Address 22 Lord Nelson St, Salford. Occupation: brickmaker; Salford, Lancashire, England3
Residence1873 (about age 62)Phoebe St, Salfrod, Lancashire, England8
Residence1881 (about age 70)Relation to Head of House: HeadMarital Status: Married; Salford, Lancashire, England6
Death18 Apr 1883 (about age 72)Died at 30 Lord Nelson St, Cross Lane, Salford. Probate on an estate of £278 4s 6d granted to Elizab; Lancashire, England5,9
1. Elizabeth Hurst (1811-1889) married 8 Sept 1828
ChildrenJames Hough (1829-1891)
William Hough (abt1831-1887)
Samuel Hough (1833-    )
John Hough (1834-1916)
George Hough (1837-    )
Isaac Hough (1839-1840)
Mary Ann Hough (1844-    )
Elizabeth Hough (1845-1846)
Harriet Hough (1848-1857)
        1., 1841 England Census , Class: HO107; Piece: 586; Book: 14; Civil Parish: Manchester; County: Lancashire; Enumeration District: 24; Folio: 11; Page: 14; Line: 7; GSU roll: 438739.
        2. 1861 England Census , Class: RG 9; Piece: 2924; Folio: 59; Page: 27; GSU roll: 543050.
        3. 1871 England Census , Class: RG10; Piece: 4027; Folio: 17; Page: 27; GSU roll: 846325.
        4. 1851 England Census, Class: HO107; Piece: 2224; Page: 4.
        5. FreeBMD, England & Wales, FreeBMD Death Index, 1837-1915 .
        6. 1881 England Census, Class: RG11; Piece: 3969; Folio: 43; Page: 11; GSU roll: 1341948.
        7. UK, City and County Directories, 1766 - 1946 ( Operations, Inc.).
        8. U.K., City and County Directories, 1600s-1900s ( Operations, Inc.).
        9. England & Wales, National Probate Calendar (Index of Wills and Administrations), 1858-1966 ( Operations Inc).

More about John Hough:

Sunday, April 12, 2015

Alice Hough - a hard life cut short

Salford Quays, (Manchester Dock no 9) in 1900
Alice Hough, my maternal great grandmother, was the fourth generation of her family to be born in Salford, Lancashire. Salford had changed drastically in those four generations. Alice, born in 1879, would have been in her teens when the Manchester Ship Canal opened in 1894, leading to the development of the Salford docks. This major inland port would employ thousands of people, including her future husband, Walter.

Alice's father, Albert Hough, was a brickmaker, a trade that would have been much in demand as Salford and Manchester grew explosively. Despite that, brickmakers were not well paid nor much respected. Until the process was mechanised, brickmaking was seasonal work that often meant being itinerant.

Perhaps that's why Alice seems to have had such an unsettled childhood, from the little I can find out about her. Her parents Albert and Anna* were not living together when the census was taken in 1881. Whether for financial or other reasons, Anna and little Alice were boarding with her brother-in-law, John Hough and his family, while Albert seems to have been boarding with a family named Mcelory (sic).

Alice and her brother Albert (born 1882) were not baptised until December 1885 when she was 6 and he was 3 years old, again suggesting that the family might not have been very stable before then. Even in 1891 Anna, along with her children Alice, Albert, Harriet (born 1887) and James (1890) was boarding with a family named Lockett, while Albert senior's whereabouts are unknown.

However when Alice's brother John was born in 1892 he was baptised fairly promptly and the family's address was recorded as 24 Buckingham St, Pendleton. They had moved to 24 Hayfield St, Pendleton by the time the youngest child Elizabeth was baptised in 1895. Sadly Alice's sister Harriet had  died in the previous year, at the age of 6.

In February 1898, when she was 18 years old, Alice married Walter Horatio Bentley. Walter was a crane driver, who like Alice was born in Salford, though neither of his parents were local.

Their first son, Walter, was born in June of that year. Within 12 months Walter senior's mother Annie (aged 50) and Alice's mother Anna (40) both died. This left Alice's younger siblings without a mother.

It seems that the 19 year old Alice stepped in to fill the gap. In the 1901 census she and Walter had her father, Albert Hough, and her four siblings Albert (18), James (10) John (8) and Elizabeth (5) living with them. The siblings are described on the census as 'step brothers' and 'step sisters', but this is probably a mistake.

A second child, Alice Hannah, was born to Alice and Walter in July 1901, followed by Margaret Annie in April 1904, Harriet Ann in 1906 and Albert in December 1907. Alice's brothers and sister were still living with them, so the house must have been very overcrowded.

Like her mother Anna, the hard-working Alice did not live to see her children grow up. In November 1909, at the age of 30, she died. According to my cousin David, her death certificate gave the cause of death as "Acute dementia and exhaustion (after childbirth)".

The phrase "acute" dementia suggests that her illness may have been a complication of giving birth to another child in 1909, as Albert would already have been nearly 2 years old by then. However, I haven't been able to find any record of a such a child. Possibly Alice had a stillborn child who was never registered.

Another possibility is that the death certificate is describing what we would now call post-natal depression or psychosis  that began after Albert's birth. Many medical terms have changed their meaning over time and it's sometimes difficult to know what was meant.

Whatever the cause, Walter was left with five young children to care for. His father-in-law, Albert Hough, had died sometime earlier, (possibly in 1904 or 1905) but the 1911 census indicates that Alice's four siblings were still living with Walter in Penny St, Pendleton - a total of ten people in a three roomed house.

Alice's sister Elizabeth, known as Lily, seems to have taken over the care of the young ones. Walter never remarried.

Salford Quays 2006
(used under a CC license from wikimedia)

*Alice's mother, Anna Holt, married Albert Hough in Stowell Memorial church, Salford, in 1878. There is some uncertainty about what they should be called, since Albert's name was recorded as "Alfred Hough" on the church marriage register, while Anna also appears as 'Hannah' on the 1881 census and some of the children's baptism records. For consistency I will refer to them as Albert and Anna.